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Identification of predominant GNPTAB gene mutations in Eastern Chinese patients with mucolipidosis II/III and a prenatal diagnosis of mucolipidosis II

Authors: Yu Wang1, Jun Ye1, Wen-juan Qiu1, Lian-shu Han1, Xiao-lan Gao1, Li-li Liang1, Xue-fan Gu1, Hui-wen Zhang1
1 Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetic, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China
Correspondence to: Xue-fan Gu: guxuefan@xinhuamed.com.cn, Hui-wen Zhang: zhanghuiwen@xinhuamed.com.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-018-0023-9
Received: 5 December 2017
Accepted: 28 March 2018
Advance online: 5 June 2018

Abstract

Mucolipidosis II α/β, mucolipidosis III α/β, and mucolipidosis III γ are autosomal recessive disorders belonging to the family of lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-phosphotransferase) localized in the Golgi apparatus, which is essential for normal processing and packaging of soluble lysosomal enzymes with initiating the first step of tagging lysosomal enzymes with mannose-6-phosphate (M6P). Mucolipidosis II and III are caused by mutations in the GNPTAB and GNPTG genes, and patients with these diseases are characterized by short stature, skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delay. In this study we report 38 patients with mucolipidosis II and III enrolled in Eastern China during the past 8 years. The diagnosis was made based on clinical characteristics and measurement of plasma lysosomal enzyme activity. Sanger sequencing of GNPTAB and/or GNPTG for all patients and real-time quantitative PCR were performed to confirm the diagnosis. In addition, 11 cases of prenatal mucolipidosis II were diagnosed based on measurement of the enzyme activity in amniotic fluid supernatant and genetic testing of cultured amniotic cells. Based on molecular genetic tests, 30 patients were diagnosed with mucolipidosis II α/β, 6 were diagnosed with III α/β and 2 were diagnosed with III γ. Thirty-seven different GNPTAB gene mutations were identified in 29 patients with mucolipidosis II α/β and six patients with III α/β. These mutations included 22 new mutations (p.W44X, p.E279X, p.W416X, p.W463X, p.Q802X, p.Q882X, p.A34P, p.R334P, p.D408N, p.D534N, p.Y997C, p.D1018V, p.L1025S, p.L1033P, c.88_89delAC, c.890_891insT, c.1150_1151insTTA, c.1523delG, c.2473_2474insA, c.2980_2983delGCCT, c.3094delA, and deletion of exon 9). Four new GNPTG gene mutations were identified (c.13delC, p.Y81X, p.G126R and c.609+1delG) in two mucolipidosis III γ patients. Among the 11 cases of prenatal diagnosis, four were mucolipidosis II fetuses, three were heterozygous, and the remaining four were normal fetuses. This study expands the mutation spectrum of the GNPTAB and GNPTG genes and contributes to specific knowledge of mucolipidosis II/III in a population from Eastern China.
Keywords: mucolipidosis; lysosomal enzymes; genotype; GNPTAB; GNPTG; gene mutation; phenotype; prenatal diagnosis

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