APS Instruction for Authors

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (APS), published monthly in English, is the official journal of the Chinese Pharmacological Society and Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

APS is listed in BIOSIS, CA, CSA Medical Biotechnology,CSA Bioengineering, CSA Neuroscience, Current Contents/Life Sciences, Excerpta Medica, FSTA, Global Health, Index Copernicus,Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Kagaku Gijutsu Bunken Sokuho ( Japan), VINITI (Russia), Research Alert, Science Citation Index, Sci Search, Scopus,Tropical Diseases Bulletin, etc.

APS encourages submissions from all aspects of pharmacology and the related areas, both experimental and clinical, from any part of the world. Topics of particular interest include, but are not limited to, anticancer pharmacology, cardiovascular and pulmonary pharmacology, neuropharmacology, immunopharmacology and inflammation, clinical pharmacology,drug discovery, gastrointestinal and hepatic pharmacology,genitourinary, renal and endocrine pharmacology, molecular and cellular pharmacology, pharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics.

Prior to submission

Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the“Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals”, as presented at http://www.ICMJE.org.

A manuscript will be considered for publication on the understanding that all named authors have agreed to its submission and that if accepted it will not be later published in the same or similar form in any language without the consent of the publishers.

Duplicate publications are not accepted. Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Copies of possibly duplicative materials that have been previously published or are being considered else where must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.

The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts without review. Such rejections are intended to alleviate unnecessary workload for the editorial board, as well as provide authors the opportunity to seek other publishing options as soon as possible. Articles that are selected for peer review will be reviewed by two or more referees.

To avoid unnecessary delays in the review process, please consider the following policies carefully before you submit your manuscript. Manuscripts that are not concise or do not conform to the conventions and standards of APS will be returned to the authors.

Conflicts of interest

In the interests of transparency and to help reviewers assess any potential bias, APS requires authors of original research papers to declare any competing commercial interests in relation to the submitted work. Referees are also asked to indicate any potential conflict they might have in reviewing a particular paper.

Electronic manipulation of images

Digital image enhancement is acceptable practice, although it can result in the presentation of unrepresentative data as well as in the loss of meaningful signals. During manipulation of images a positive relationship between the original data and the resulting electronic image must be maintained. If a figure has been subjected to significant electronic manipulation,the specific nature of the enhancements must be noted in the figure legend or in the ”Materials and methods” section. The editors reserve the right to request original versions of figures from the authors of a paper under consideration.

Supplementary information for the editors and the reviewers

Any manuscripts under review or accepted for publication elsewhere should accompany the submission if they are relevant to its scientific assessment. Authors should also provide upon submission any kind of supplementary material that will aid the review process.

Content types

The content types accepted by APS are Editorial, Research Highlight, Perspective, Review, Original Article, and Letter to the Editor.


Editorial articles are written by the editor(s) of the journal or by the guest editor(s) of thematic special features based on the contents of the current issue or topical subjects that fall with in the scope of the journal.

Research Highlight

The Research Highlight section of APS provides a forumin which relevant scientific news as reported in recently published articles can be communicated to its readers.


Perspective articles present personal, forward-looking, or speculative reviews of a scientific topic. This is a commission only section.


Review articles survey recent developments in a topical area of pharmacological research. Reviews have a word limit of 8000 words excluding references. A number of Reviews will be solicited by the editors; however, we also welcome timely, unsolicited Reviews based primarily on authors’ own research work.

Original Article

Original articles on all aspects of pharmacology and related areas, both experimental and clinical, are welcome. Studies should be of high scientific quality and interest to the divers ereadership of the journal. The chemical structure of new compounds (or a citation to the published structure) must be given. Studies lacking mechanistic insight are not encouraged.

Letter to the Editor

Letter to the Editor section presents preliminary reports of unusual urgency, significance and interest. They should contain no more than 1000 words of text, one display item(figure or table) and a maximum of 10 references. Letters to the Editor do not contain an abstract.

Preparation of manuscripts

All papers should be written in concise English but should contain sufficient detail to illustrate how the results were obtained. Manuscripts should be double-spaced with wide margins.

Manuscripts should contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee or it should be stated clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their in clusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study should be omitted. Authors should also draw attention to the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki, 1964, as revised in 2004).

When reporting the results from experiments on animals indicate whether the experiments were conducted according to the National Research Council’s guidelines. Indicate the grade of the animals and give the certificate number of the animal breeder. Rats and mice of at least Grade II can be reported.The sex, age, and measured body weights of tested animals or humans should be expressed as mean, standard deviation, and total range.

Cover Letter

The uploaded covering letter must state that the material has not been submitted for publication elsewhere while underconsideration for APS. Identify the name, full postal address,and fax number of the corresponding author. The authors are free to offer suggestions of suitable expert reviewers.

Article sections

In general, manuscripts should be divided into the following sections: Title page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Author contribution, References, Tables, Figures, and Supplementary information.

Title page

The title page carries the title, the authors, the authors’affiliations, and footnotes.

Title: The title must be informative, specific, and brief (<120 characters, including spaces). Words should be chosen carefully for retrieval purposes. All nonfunctional words should be deleted, such as “studies on”, ”observations of”, and ”roles of”, etc.

Authors: Authors should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship should be based on all of the following conditions: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) involve ment in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version tobe published. Any changes in authorship must be approved by all authors. Capitalize all the letters in the surname, spell out the given name in full, and include a hyphen between the syllables of Chinese names. For example: Jin-an LI, Ji-nanOU-YANG, Noboru YANAIHARA, Theo Anthonie VAN DERHOEVEN, Kenneth Patrick DU BOIS, Paul Vincent HARPERJr, and John Davison ROCKEFELLER III.

Affiliation: The affiliation is the institute or laboratory where the work was done.

Footnotes: Footnotes may include 1) the corresponding author’s name and email address, and 2) present address.


The Abstract should be in non-structured form (<300 words).Concisely describe the content and scope of the writing.Highlight the major points covered. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study. The abstract should briefly state: the objective (the purpose of the research), design,subjects, interventions, the main outcomes or measures (how the problem was studied), results (the principal findings),and conclusion (what the findings mean). Provide logical connections between them


A list of 3–10 keywords should be given below the Abstract,each separated by a semicolon (;). Use terms recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list at http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/mesh. For example: brain ischemia (not cerebral ischemia),cardiomegaly (not heart hypertrophy), neoplasm (not cancer),immuno his to chemistry (not immunocy to chemistry).

If a suitable MeSH term is not available, a more general term suitable for indexing may be used. Do not use unqualified and unhelpful terms such as ”organic compounds” and ”animal experiments.”


This should give a short, clear account of the background and reasons for undertaking the study. It should not be are view of the literature. The Introduction summarizes the rationale for the study and gives a concise background. User eferences to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review. The last sentence should concisely state your purpose for carrying out the study (not methods, results,or conclusion).

Materials and methods

This section should contain sufficient detail so that allex perimental procedures can be repeated by others in conjunction with cited references. This section may be divided into subheadings to assist the reader. Names of products and manufacturers should be included only if alternative sources are deemed unsatisfactory, giving both the company name and city.  Generic names of drugs should be used. Avoid code designations, for example, calcimyc in (not A-23187),enalaprilat (not MK-422). If necessary, the brand, trade or commercial name of a drug can be included in parentheses on first mention. Scientific species nomenclature should be used at all times, providing the genus, species (in italics) and authority for all microorganisms, plants and animals. The first letter of the drug name should be lower-case for INN or generic names (eg, ranitidine and captopril), but capitalized for proprietary names (eg, Zantac and Capoten).Manufacturers(not distributors or senders) and specifications should be given for main drugs, chemicals, and instruments.

Novel experimental procedures should be described in detail, but published procedures should be referred to by literature citation of the original article and published modifications. Use of standard abbreviations and SI units of measurement (according to the Systeme International d’Unites)is encouraged. Measurements that are not currently converted to SI units in biomedical applications are blood and oxygen pressures, enzyme activity, H+ concentration, temperature,and volume. Abbreviations, if used, should be defined on their first appearance in the text.

Identify the drug administration schedule, for example,dose (base or salt) and route of administration. The routes of administration may be abbreviated: intraarterial (ia),intracerebroventricular (icv), intragastric gavage (ig),intramuscular (im), intraperitoneal (ip), intravenous (iv), per os(po), subcutaneous (sc).

Statistical methods should be described when they are used to verify the results. Choose suitable techniques for th statistical treatments; for example, t-test (group or pairedcomparisons), chi-squared test, Ridit, probit, logit, regression(linear, curvilinear, or stepwise), correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance, etc

Only homogeneous data can be averaged. Standard deviations are preferred to standard errors. Give the number of observations and subjects (n). Losses in observations, such  as drop-outs from the study should be reported

Values such as ED50, LD50, IC50 should have their 95%confidence limits calculated and compared by weighted probit analysis (Bliss and Finney).

The word “significantly” should be replaced by its synonyms(if it indicates extent) or the P value (if it indicates statistical significance).

Physical quantities are printed in italic type, for example,dp/dt (not dP/dT). A subscript that represents a symbol fora physical quantity is printed in italic type, for example, Xp (p:pressure), T1/2 (but T1/2α). A solidus (/) should not be followed by a multiplication sign or a division sign unless parent heses are inserted to avoid any ambiguity. In complicated cases,negative powers or parentheses should be used, for example,mol·L-1·s-1, not mol/L/s. Multiple prefix (eg, mμg) should notbe used

SI units (Système International d’Unités) must be used.For example: 25.4 mm (not 1 inch), g/L, mol/L (not M orN). When an Arabic number precedes an SI unit, the unitsymbol should be used rather than the full name of the unit, for example, 1 s (one second), 2 min (two minutes),3 h (three hours), 4 d (four days), d 4 (the fourth day). The symbol ‰ (“per mill” or per thousand) should be avoided.Abbreviations such as ppm and ppb should not be used. No unit is required for relative molecular mass (Mr).

Dosage is expressed as per kg (even in mice). Concentration in solution is expressed as per L or per mL. Values for rpm should be converted into gravity (×g). Absorbance (A) values are preferred to optical density (OD) values

Symbols are not pluralized (eg, 9 kg, not kgs) and are not followed by a period (eg, min, not min.). Indicate the numerical value as the ratio of the quantity to the unit (eg,λ/nm=589). This is particularly useful in graphs and in the headings of columns in tables.

Use 12.4 mm (not 0.0124 m), 5 µmol (not 5×10-6 mol), 3–8 g,3%–8%, 3 m×8 m×2 m, (8±3) g, (8±3) nmol·L-1·g-1 (protein).

Do not include more digits than are justified by the accuracy of the determinations. For example: a dog weighs 9 kg (not 9000 g, which implies an accuracy of 1 g). In a sample, the effective digits are determined by the variation within the sample, that is, one-third of the standard deviation. For example: 8.6±2.9 kg (not 8619±2930 g, nor 9±3 kg). The sign for multiplication of numbers is a cross (×) or a raised dot(·). Leave a space between the numerical value and the unitsymbol, eg, 37ºC. Calendar dates may be written in two forms:2016-06-05 or 5th June, 2016.

For isotopically labelled compounds, use a square bracket directly attached to the front of the name (word) or formula.Examples: [14C]urea, [α-32P]ATP (not AT32P), sodium [14C]formate, [1-14C,2-13C]acetaldehyde, [carboxy-14C]leucine,and [1-3H]ethanol. However, both [131I]iodoalbumin and 131I-albumin are correct.

The SI unit for radioactivity is becquerel (Bq): 1 Ci=37×109 disintegrations per second=37 GBq. The disintegrations per minute (dpm), not counts per minute (cpm), should be converted to Bq for presentation.


The description of results should not simply reiterate data that appear in tables and figures and, likewise, the same data should not be displayed in both tables and figures. The results section should be concise and follow a logical sequence. If the paper describes a complex series of experiments, it is permissible to explain the protocol/experimental design be for epresenting the results. Present your results followed by (Table1 or Figure 2). Do not write “Table 1 shows that” or “Figure 2 demonstrated that”. Do not discuss the results or draw any conclusions in this section. This section may be divided into subheadings to assist the reader. Large datasets or other cumbersome data pertinent to the manuscript may be submitted as supplementary information.


Do not recapitulate the results, but discuss their significance against the background of existing knowledge, and identify clearly those aspects that are novel. Emphasize any new and important findings and relate your results to other studies. Discuss the shortcomings in your experiments. New hypotheses and recommendations may be proposed when warranted.

A review-like treatment is unacceptable. Any discussion that could be written before the study was carried out should be deleted or transposed to the Introduction section. Focus the discussion on your results. Avoid unqualified statements and digressions from the topic. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed.

The final paragraph should highlight the main conclusion(s),which should be linked with the goal stated in the Introduction.Do not include the obvious statement that further workis necessary or planned. This section may be divided into subheadingsto assist the reader. In your conclusion avoid indefiniteor ambiguous wording, such as “possible”, “perhaps”,“maybe”, “probably”, and “likely”. If you are not sure of yourconclusion, do more experiments.


These should be brief, and should include sources of financial support, material (eg, novel compounds, strains, etc) not available commercially, personal assistance, advice from colleagues and gifts. Acknowledgements should be made only to those who have made a significant contribution to the study

Author contribution

Authors must indicate their specific contributions to the published work. Examples of designations include: XXXdesigned research; XXX performed research; XXX contributed new reagents or analytic tools; XXX analyzed data; XXX wrote the paper. An author may list more than one contribution, and more than one author may have contributed to the same aspect.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Published articles as well as those in press (please state the name of the journal and enclose a copy of the manuscript) maybe included. In the text of the manuscript, references to the literature should be numbered consecutively and indicated by a superscript. Each reference should be number ed individually and listed at the end of the manuscript. Avoid using conference abstracts as references. “Unpublished data”,“classified periodicals”, and “personal communications” cannot be used as references. Old references should be replaced with updated ones. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). All authors should be quoted for papers with up to six authors; for papers with six or more authors, the first six authors should be quoted, followed by et al. Examples are given below.

Articles in journals

1 Standard journal article: Li C, Guo XD, Lei M, Wu JY, Jin JZ,Shi XF, et al. Thamnolia vermicularis extract improves learning ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by ameliorating both Aβand Tau pathologies. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2017; 38: 9–28.

2 Organization as author: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126:36–47.

3 No author given: Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1994; 84: 15.

4 Article not in English: Chachin M, Ohmura T, Hayashi N,Nishimura Y, Satoh H. Pharmacological and clinical profile of telmisartan, a selective angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker.Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2004; 124: 31–9. Japanese.

5 Volume with supplement: Malmström RE. NeuropeptideYY1 receptor mechanisms in sympathetic vascular control.Acta Physiol Scand 1997; 160 Suppl 636: 1–55.

6 Volume with part: Ozben T, Nacitarhan S, Tuncer N.Plasma and urine sialic acid in non-insulin dependent diabetesmellitus. Ann Clin Biochem 1995; 32 (Pt 3): 303–6.

7 Pagination in Roman numerals: Fisher GA, Sikic BI. Drugresistance in clinical oncology and hematology. Introduction.Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1995; 9: xi–xii.

8 Type of article indicated as needed: Enzensberger W, FischerPA. Metronome in Parkinson’s disease [letter]. Lancet 1996;347: 1337.

9 Article republished with corrections: Mansharamani M,Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases.Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 188: 22–5. Corrected and republishedfrom: Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 183: 123–6.

10 Article published electronically ahead of the print version: Zou K, Li Z, Zhang Y, Zhang HY, Li B, Zhu WL, et al.Advances in the study of berberine and its derivatives: a focuson anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects in the digestivesystem. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2017. doi: 10.1038/aps.2016.125.

Books and other monographs

11 Personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): DelmarPublishers; 1996.

12 Editor(s)/compiler(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ,editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York:Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

13 Organization as author and publisher: Institute of Medicine(US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program.Washington: The Institute; 1992.

14 Chapter in a book: Milton AS. Prostaglandins and fever.In: Sharma HS, Westman J, editors. Progress in brain research;v 115. Brain function in hot environment. Amsterdam:Elsevier; 1998. p 129–39.

15 Conference proceedings: Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors.Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings ofthe 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology;1995 Oct 15–19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam:Elsevier; 1996.

16 Conference paper: Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcementof data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics.In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors.MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress onMedical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6–10; Geneva, Switzerland.Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p 1561–5.

17 Scientific or technical report: Issued by funding/sponsor­vwww.chinaphar.comInformation for authorsActa Pharmacologica Sinicanpging agency: Smith P, Golladay K. Payment for durablemedical equipment billed during skilled nursing facility stays.Final report. Dallas (TX): Dept of Health and Human Services(US), Office of Evaluation and Inspections; 1994 Oct. ReportNo: HHSI-GOEI-69200860.

18 Dissertation: Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care:the elderly’s access and utilization [dissertation]. St Louis(MO): Washington Univ; 1995.

19 Patent: Larsen CE, Trip R, Johnson CR, inventors; NovosteCorporation, assignee. Methods for procedures related to theelectrophysiology of the heart. US patent 5 529 067. 1995 Jun 25.

Other published material

20 Newspaper article: Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozonepollution: study estimates 50 000 admissions annually. TheWashington Post 1996 Jun 21; Sect A: 3 (col 5).

21 Legal material: Public law: Preventive Health Amendmentsof 1993, Pub L 103–183, 107 Stat 2226 (1993 Dec 14).

Material ”in press”

22 In press: Zhu JJ, Zhang XX, Miao YQ, He SF, Tian DM, YaoXS, et al. Delivery of acetylthevetin B, an antitumor cardiacglycoside, using polymeric micelles for enhanced therapeuticefficacy against lung cancer cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2017. Inpress.

Electronic material:

23 CD-ROM: Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson’selectronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.

24 Journal article on the Internet: Abood S. Quality improvementinitiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisoryrole. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002Aug 12]; 102: [about 3 p]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm

25 Monograph on the Internet: Foley KM, Gelband H,editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph onthe Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001[cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029.html

26. Homepage/Web site: Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York:Association of Cancer Online Resources Inc; c2000-01 [updated2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/

27 Part of a homepage/Web site: American Medical Association[homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association;c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMAOffice of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Availablefrom: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html

28 Open database on the Internet: Who’s Certified [databaseon the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board ofMedical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Availablefrom: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp

29 Closed database on the Internet: Jablonski S. OnlineMultiple Congenitial Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD):National Library of Medicine (US). c1999 [updated 2001 Nov20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/jablonski/syndrome-title.html

30 Part of a database on the Internet: Mesh Browser [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine(US); 2002 - [cited 2003 Jun 10]. Meta-analysis; unique ID:D015201; [about 3 p]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html. Files updated weekly.


These should be labeled sequentially as Table 1, Table 2, etc.Tables should not duplicate the content of the text. They should consist of at least two columns; columns should always have headings. Tables may have a brief footnote that identifies all abbreviations used. Authors should ensure that the data in the tables are consistent with those cited in the relevant places in the text, totals add up correctly, and percentages have been calculated correctly. Tables should be supplied as separate electronic files (as Word or Excel file formats).


These should be labeled sequentially as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.Each figure should be self-explanatory (intelligible without reference to the text). Avoid repetitions of data in the text and figures.

Legends for figures should be typed or printed out using double spacing, starting on a separate page. Briefly explain the symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters in the illustrations. Identify the method of staining and magnification of the photomicrographs(eg, H&E stain, ×900).

If exponents of 10 are used, it should be clear what numberis to be multiplied. For instance, under the heading of“10-4×Cells” a value of 8 designates 80000 cells, and under theheading of “103×Concentration/mol·L-1” the value of 1.5 designates0.0015 mol·L-1 or 1.5 mmol·L-1.

When relative percentages are used, the absolute data should be indicated (particularly for the control values). Indicate the number and character of observations and subjects. Indicate what the n was, eg, n=9 cells from 9 rats.

Identify statistical significance by superscripts in front of theprobabilities (P):

P<;0.05, **P<0.01 vs A;
#P<0.05, ##P<0.01 vs B;
$P<0.05, $$P<0.01 vs C; etc

If a table or figure has been published before, the authors must obtain written permission to reproduce the material in both print and electronic formats from the copyright owner and submit it with the manuscript. This follows for quotes, illustrations and other materials taken from previously published works not in the public domain. The original source should be cited in the figure caption or table footnote. Color figures can be reproduced if necessary, but the authors will be expected to contribute towards the cost of publication. A quote will be supplied upon acceptance of your paper.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information is peer-reviewed material directly relevant to the conclusion of an article that cannot be included in the printed version owing to space or format constraints. It is posted on the journal’s website and linked to the article when the article is published and may consist of data files, graphics, movies or extensive tables.

The printed article must be complete and self-explanatory without the supplementary information. Supplementary information enhances a reader’s understanding of the paper but is not essential to that understanding.

Supplementary information must be supplied to the editorial office in its final form for peer review. On acceptance the final version of the peer reviewed supplementary information should be submitted with the accepted paper.

To ensure that the contents of the supplementary information files can be viewed by the editor(s), referees and readers,please also submit a ”read-me” file containing brief instructionson how to use the file.

The supplementary information may not be altered, nor newsupplementary information added, after the paper has been accepted for publication.

Please supply the supplementary information via the electronic manuscript submission and tracking system, in an acceptable file format (see below).

    Authors should:
  • Include a text summary (no more than 50 words) todescribe the contents of each file.
  • Identify the types of files (file formats) submitted.
  • Include the text ‘Supplementary information is availableat (APS)’s website’ at the end of the article and before thereferences.
    Accepted file formats:
  • Quick Time files (.mov)
  • Graphical image files (.gif)
  • HTML files (.html)
  • MPEG movie files (.mpg)
  • JPEG image files (.jpg)
  • Sound files (.wav)
  • Plain ASCII text (.txt)
  • Acrobat files (.pdf)
  • MS Word documents (.doc)
  • Postscript files (.ps)
  • MS Excel spreadsheet documents (.xls)
  • PowerPoint (.ppt)

We cannot accept TeX and LaTeX.

File sizes must be as small as possible, so that they can be downloaded quickly. Images should not exceed 640×480 pixels (9×6.8 inches at 72 pixels per inch) but we would recommend 480×360 pixels as the maximum frame size for movies. We would also recommend a frame rate of 15 frames per second. If applicable to the presentation of the supplementary information, use a 256-color palette. Please consider the use of lower specification for all of these points ifthe supplementary information can still be represented clearly.Our recommended maximum data rate is 150 kB/s.

The number of files should be limited to eight, and the totalfile size should not exceed 8 MB. Individual files should notexceed 1 MB. Please seek advice from the editorial officebefore sending files larger than our maximum size to avoiddelays in publication.

Submission of papers

The first thing you need to do, if you have not done soalready, is register for an account on our online submission and review system with Scholar One Manuscript Central(http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aphs). After this, please consult the User Guide to enable you to submit your article through our secure server. Please be sure that your browser is set to accept cookies. Our tracking system requires cookies for proper operation. (If you have Windows XP the defaults will need changing. For more details on this, please refer to the‘Tips’ function on this site.)

Upon receipt of the manuscript, a letter acknowledging receipt will be sent to the corresponding author. After being pre-reviewed by the editors, most of the submitted manuscripts will be sent to expert referees for peer-review. All manuscripts are subject to editorial modifications. APS disclaims any liability for statements made by authors or advertisers.

Licence to Publish

The corresponding author must complete and sign the Licence to Publish form upon acceptance of the manuscript and return it to the editorial office. Failure to do so will result in delays to the publication of your paper. A copy of the Licence to Publishform can be found at Licence to Publish.


Once the manuscript has been accepted, the corresponding author will receive PDF proofs and are responsible for proofreading and checking the entire article. Authors should correct only typesetting errors, no major alteration of the text will be accepted. Page proofs must be returned within 48 h to avoid delays in publication along with the reprint order if required.


Publication fee is CNY 4000 (USD 600) for each acceptedarticle. The additional cost will be billed to authors at a rateof CNY 1000 (USD 150) per color figure. Authors should paypublication fee once the article is accepted.

Open Access

Upon submission of an original research paper, authors can indicate within the manuscript tracking system whether they wish to pay an article processing charge for their article to be published open access. The article processing charge is£2500/$3300/€2700 (plus VAT where applicable) and can be paid by requesting an invoice be raised.

Editorial Office correspondence

294 Tai-yuan Road, Shanghai 200031, China
E-mail aps@simm.ac.cn
Phn 86-21-5492-2821 or 86-21-5492-2822
Fax 86-21-5492-2823