Anti-amnestic and anti-aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanism of action

Yong CHENG, Li-hong SHEN, Jun-tian ZHANG


In the present paper, we overview the discovery of new biological activities
induced by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and discuss possible mechanisms of action.
Both compounds could increase neural plasticity in efficacy and structure; especially
Rg1, as one small molecular drug, can increase proliferation and differentiation
of neural progenitor cells in dentate gyrus of hippocampus of normal adult
mice and global ischemia model in gerbils. This finding has great value for treatment
of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders which is characterized
by neurons loss. Increase of expression of brain derived neurotrophic
factor, Bcl-2 and antioxidant enzyme, enhanced new synapse formation, inhibition
of apoptosis and calcium overload are also important neuron protective factors.
Rg1 and Rb1 have common effects, but there are some differences in pharmacology
and mechanism. These differences may attribute to their different chemical
structure. Rg1 is panaxtriol with two sugars, while Rb1 is panaxtriol with four