Is the combinational administration of doxorubicin and glutathione a reasonable proposal?
The combinational administration of antioxidants and chemotherapeutic agents during conventional cancer treatment is among one of the most controversial areas in oncology. Although the data on the combinational usage of doxorubicin (DOX) and glutathione (GSH) agents have been explored for over 20 years, the duration, administration route, and authentic rationality have not yet been fully understood yet. In the current study, we systematically investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) with both in vivo and in vitro models to elucidate the inﬂuence of GSH on the toxicity and efﬁcacy of DOX. We ﬁrst studied the cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of GSH in Balb/c mice, H9c2, and HL7702 cells. We showed that coadministration of exogenous GSH (5, 50, and 500 mg/kg per day, intragastric) signiﬁcantly attenuated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by increasing intracellular GSH levels, whereas the elevated GSH concentrations did not affect the exposure of DOX in mouse heart and liver. From PK and PD perspectives, then the inﬂuences of GSH on the chemotherapeutic efﬁcacy of DOX were investigated in xenografted nude mice and cancer cell models, including MCF-7, HepG2, and Caco-2 cells, which revealed that administration of exogenous GSH dose-dependently attenuated the anticancer efﬁcacy of DOX in vivo and in vitro, although the elevated GSH levels neither inﬂuenced the concentration of DOX in tumors in vivo, nor the uptake of DOX in MCF-7 tumor cells in vitro. Based on the results we suggest that the combined administration of GSH and DOX should be contraindicated during chemotherapy unless DOX has caused serious hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity.Keywords: doxorubicin; glutathione; cardioprotection; hepatoprotection; chemotherapeutic efﬁcacy; antioxidants