Article

EGFR-targeting, β-defensin-tailored fusion protein exhibits high therapeutic efficacy against EGFR-expressed human carcinoma via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis

Authors: Wen-Juan Liu1, Xiu-Jun Liu2, Jian Xu2, Liang Li2, Yi Li2, Sheng-Hua Zhang2, Jia-Lin Wang3, Qing-Fang Miao2, Yong-Su Zhen2
1 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 250117 Jinan, China
2 Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100050 Beijing, China
3 Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 250117 Jinan, China
Correspondence to: Wen-Juan Liu: 122liuwenjuan@163.com, Yong-Su Zhen: zhenys@imb.pumc.edu.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-018-0069-8
Received: 7 January 2018
Accepted: 10 June 2018
Advance online: 16 July 2018

Abstract

Defensins play an essential role in innate immunity. In this study, a novel recombinant β-defensin that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was designed and prepared. The EGFR-targeting β-defensin consists of an EGF-derived oligopeptide (Ec), a β-defensin-1 peptide (hBD1) and a lidamycin-derived apoprotein (LDP), which serves as the “scaffold” for the fusion protein (Ec-LDP-hBD1). Ec-LDP-hBD1 effectively bound to EGFR highly expressed human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. The cytotoxicity of Ec-LDP-hBD1 to EGFR highly expressed A431 cells was more potent than that to EGFR low-expressed human lung carcinoma A549 and H460 cells (the IC50 values in A431, A549, and H460 cells were 1.8 ± 0.55, 11.9 ± 0.51, and 5.19 ± 1.21 μmol/L, respectively); in addition, the cytotoxicity of Ec-LDP-hBD1 was much stronger than that of Ec-LDP and hBD1. Moreover, Ec-LDP-hBD1 suppressed cancer cell proliferation and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Its in vivo anticancer action was evaluated in athymic mice with A431 and H460 xenografts. The mice were administered Ec-LDP-hBD1 (5, 10 mg/kg, i.v.) two times with a weekly interval. Administration of Ec-LDP-hBD1 markedly inhibited the tumor growth without significant body weight changes. The in vivo imaging further revealed that Ec-LDP-hBD1 had a tumor-specific distribution with a clear image of localization. The results demonstrate that the novel recombinant EGFR-targeting β-defensin Ec-LDP-hBD1 displays both selectivity and enhanced cytotoxicity against relevant cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and exhibits high therapeutic efficacy against the EGFR-expressed carcinoma xenograft. This novel format of β-defensin, which induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, may play an active role in EGFR-targeting cancer therapy.
Keywords: defensin; recombinant protein; EGFR-targeting; lidamycin apoprotein; mitochondria-mediated apoptosis; human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells; human lung carcinoma A549 cells; human lung carcinoma H460 cells

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