Article

Charactering the metabolism of cryptotanshinone by human P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases in vitro

Authors: Jin ZENG1, Yu-juan FAN1, Bo TAN1, Hui-zong SU1, Yue LI1, Lin-lin ZHANG1, Jian JIANG1, Fu-rong QIU1
1 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
Corresponding to: Jian JIANG: Jiangjiansg@126.com, Fu-rong QIU: Furong_qiu@126.com,
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2017.144
Received: 20 June 2017
Accepted: 26 October 2017
Advance online: 8 February 2018

Abstract

Cryptotanshinone (CT) is the main active component in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB) that displays antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we characterized phase I and phase II metabolism of CT in human liver microsomes in vitro and identified the metabolic enzymes (CYPs and UGTs) involved. The metabolites of CT generated by CYPs were detected using LC-MS/MS and the CYP subtypes involved in the metabolic reactions were identified using chemical inhibitors of CYP enzymes and recombinant human CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4). Glucuronidation of CT was also examined, and the UGT subtypes involved in the metabolic reactions were identified using recombinant human UGT enzymes (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10, 2B4, 2B7, 2B15 and 2B17). After adding NADPH to the human liver microsomes incubation system, CT was transformed into 6 main dehydrogenation and hydroxylation metabolites. CYP2A6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were the major contributors to the transformation of its hydroxylation metabolites. CYP2C19, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were the major contributors to the transformation of its hydrogenation metabolites in human liver microsomes. This study showed that the metabolites at m/z of 473 were mediated by UGT1A9 and that the metabolites at m/z of 489 were mediated by UGT2B7 and UGT2B4. CT was extensively metabolized by UGTs following metabolism by CYPs in the liver.
Keywords: cryptotanshinone; P450 enzymes; uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases; metabolic characteristics; human liver microsomes

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