Circulating biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases: the beats never stop

Lei XI1, George KOUVELOS2, Nazareno PAOLOCCI3
1 Pauley Heart Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0204, USA
2 Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece
3 Heart & Vascular Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Correspondence to: Lei XI: lei.xi@vcuhealth.org, George KOUVELOS: geokouv@gmail.com, Nazareno PAOLOCCI: npaoloc1@jhmi.edu,
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2018.43
Advance online: 21 June 2018


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major health issue and a grave socio-economic burden, being the No. 1 killer in major industrial countries and the main reason for frequent rehospitalization[1].

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