Article

D-chiro-inositol effectively attenuates cholestasis in bile duct ligated rats by improving bile acid secretion and attenuating oxidative stress

Authors: Shuang-shuang ZHAO1, Na-ren LI1, Wu-li ZHAO1, Hong LIU1, Mao-xu GE1, Yi-xuan ZHANG1, Long-yin ZHAO2, Xue-fu YOU3, Hong-wei HE1, Rong-guang SHAO1
1 Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC); Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China
2 Beijing Jince-Spring Medical Technology Co, Ltd, Beijing 100102, China
3 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China
Corresponding to: Hong-wei HE: hehwei@imb.pumc.edu.cn, Rong-guang SHAO: shaor@imb.pumc.edu.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2017.98
Received: 12 December 2016
Accepted: 30 March 2017
Advance online: 27 July 2017

Abstract

Abstract
Cholestatic liver diseases are important causes of liver cirrhosis and liver transplantation, but few drugs are available for treatment. D-chiro-inositol (DCI), an isomer of inositol found in many Leguminosae plants and in animal viscera, is used clinically for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated whether DCI exerted an anti-cholestatic effect and its underlying mechanisms. A cholestatic rat model was established via bile duct ligation (BDL). After the surgery, the rats were given DCI (150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in drinking water for 2 weeks. Oral administration of DCI significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and attenuated bile duct proliferation, parenchymal necrosis and fibrosis in BDL rats. Furthermore, DCI treatment significantly increased the serum and bile levels of total bile acid (TBA), and decreased TBA levels in the liver. Moreover, DCI treatment significantly increased expression of the genes encoding bile acid transporters BSEP (Abcb11) and MRP2 (Abcc2) in liver tissues. DCI treatment also markedly decreased hepatic CD68 and NF-kappaB (NF-κB) levels, significantly decreased the serum and hepatic MDA levels, markedly increased superoxide dismutase activity in both serum and liver tissues. Using whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray, we revealed that DCI treatment altered the expression profiles of oxidation reduction-related genes in liver tissues. Collectively, DCI effectively attenuates BDL-induced hepatic bile acid accumulation and decreases the severity of injury and fibrosis by improving bile acid secretion, repressing inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. The results suggest that DCI might be beneficial for patients with cholestatic disorders.
Keywords: d-chiro-inositol; cholestatic liver diseases; bile duct ligation; liver fibrosis; bile acid transporters; inflammation; oxidative stress