Xyloketal B alleviates cerebral infarction and neurologic deficits in a mouse stroke model by suppressing the ROS/TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway
Xyloketal B (Xyl-B) is a novel marine compound isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. We previously demonstrated that pretreatment with Xyl-B exerted neuroprotective effects and attenuated hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice. In the present study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatment with Xyl-B in adult mice using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57 mice were subjected to tMCAO surgery. For the pre-treatment, Xyl-B was given via multiple injections (12.5, 25, and 50 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) 48 h, 24 h and 30 min before ischemia. For the post-treatment, a single dose of Xyl-B (50 mg/kg, ip) was injected at 0, 1 or 2 h after the onset of ischemia. The regional cerebral perfusion was monitored using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. TTC staining was performed to determine the brain infarction volume. We found that both pre-treatment with Xyl-B (50 mg/kg) and post-treatment with Xyl-B (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume, but had no significant hemodynamic effects. Treatment with Xyl-B also significantly alleviated the neurological deficits in tMCAO mice. Furthermore, treatment with Xyl-B significantly attenuated ROS overproduction in brain tissues; increased the MnSOD protein levels, suppressed TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS protein levels; and downregulated the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Moreover, Xyl-B also protected blood-brain barrier integrity in tMCAO mice. In conclusion, Xyl-B administered within 2 h after the onset of stroke effectively protects against focal cerebral ischemia; the underlying mechanism may be related to suppressing the ROS/TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway.