Original Articles

Drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol

Zhi-min Liu, Wei-hua Zhou, Zhi Lian, Yue Mu, Zheng-hong Ren, Jia-qi Cao, Zhi-ji Cai


To assess the drug dependence and abuse liability of tramadol.
Subjects of opiate addicts with history of tramadol abuse were 219. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using opiate withdrawal scale (OWS), psychic dependence was assessed by association test of Addiction Research Center Inventory-Chinese Version (ARCI-CV); the degrees of craving experienced for tramadol was self-reported on visual analogue scale (VAS).
The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.05-1.07; 3 scores on scales in particular being used the identify euphoric effects--MBG, sedative effects--PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects--LSD of ARCI were 7.3, 6.1, and 3.4, respectively (F = 38.1, P < 0.01); 57.1% of tramadol abuse subjects had craving for tramadol (chi 2 = 75.86, P < 0.01).
Tramadol produced high abuse potential among opiate addicts.

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