Original Articles

Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and potentiates apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells in vitro through the NF-κB signaling pathway

Authors: Jing Li, Lin Shen, Fu-rong Lu, You Qin, Rui Chen, Jia Li, Yan Li, Han-zi Zhan, Yuan-qiao He
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2011.152


Aim: To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human gastric cancer (GC) cells.
Methods: Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, MKN-28, and AGS were used. The cell viability was examined using CCK-8 viability assay. Cell proliferation rate was determined using both clonogenic assay and EdU incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected via Annexin V/propidium iodide double-labeled flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of both NF-κB-regulated gene products and TNF-α-induced activation of p65, IκBα, and IKK. The intracellular location of NF-κB p65 was detected using confocal microscopy.
Results: Plumbagin (2.5–40 μmol/L) concentration-dependently reduced the viability of the GC cells. The IC50 value of plumbagin in SGC-7901, MKN-28, and AGS cells was 19.12, 13.64, and 10.12 μmol/L, respectively. The compound (5–20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, and potentiated the sensitivity of SGC-7901 cells to chemotherapeutic agents TNF-αand cisplatin. The compound (10 μmol/L) downregulated the expression of NF-κB-regulated gene products, including IAP1, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, tumor factor (TF), and VEGF. In addition to inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, the compound also suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IKK, and the degradation of IκBα.
Conclusion: Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and potentiates apoptosis in human GC cells through the NF-κB pathway.

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