Review Article

Nanomedicine-based immunotherapy for central nervous system disorders

Authors: Sumaira Hanif1, Pir Muhammad1, Rose Chesworth2, Fawad Ur Rehman1, Rong-jun Qian3, Meng Zheng1, Bing-yang Shi1,4
1 Henan-Macquarie University Joint Centre for Biomedical Innovation, School of Life Sciences Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
2 School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003, China
4 Centre for Motor Neuron Disease Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Correspondence to: Rong-jun Qian: qrjqqx@163.com, Meng Zheng: mzheng@henu.edu.cn, Bing-yang Shi: bs@henu.edu.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-020-0429-z

Abstract

Central nervous system (CNS) disorders represent a broad spectrum of brain ailments with short- and long-term disabilities, and nanomedicine-based approaches provide a new therapeutic approach to treating CNS disorders. A variety of potential drugs have been discovered to treat several neuronal disorders; however, their therapeutic success can be limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, unique immune functions within the CNS provide novel target mechanisms for the amelioration of CNS diseases. Recently, various therapeutic approaches have been applied to fight brain-related disorders, with moderate outcomes. Among the various therapeutic strategies, nanomedicine-based immunotherapeutic systems represent a new era that can deliver useful cargo with promising pharmacokinetics. These approaches exploit the molecular and cellular targeting of CNS disorders for enhanced safety, efficacy, and specificity. In this review, we focus on the efficacy of nanomedicines that utilize immunotherapy to combat CNS disorders. Furthermore, we detailed summarize nanomedicine-based pathways for CNS ailments that aim to deliver drugs across the BBB by mimicking innate immune actions.
Keywords: central nervous system disorders; blood–brain barrier; nanomedicine; immunotherapy

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