Article

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against CMS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice via regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways

Authors: Xiao Huang1,2, Guo-qiang Fei2, Wen-juan Liu1, Jing Ding2, Yuan Wang1, Hao Wang3, Jian-lin Ji1, Xin Wang2,4
1 Department of Psychological Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
2 Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
3 Teaching Center of Experimental Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
4 The State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, the Institutes of Brain Science and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Correspondence to: Hao Wang: wh91351@126.com, Jian-lin Ji: ji.jianlin@zs-hospital.sh.cn, Xin Wang: wang.xin@zs-hospital.sh.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-019-0317-6
Received: 31 May 2019
Accepted: 9 October 2019
Advance online: 3 December 2019

Abstract

Increasing studies show that inflammatory processes may be involved in depressive disorders. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) modulates tissue microglial M1 phenotypic changes to the M2 phenotype, which is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. We have reported that the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) display anti-inflammatory activity. In this study we explored whether the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of ADSCs was related to Nrf2. ADSCs were isolated from mouse fat pads and intravenously administered to chronic mild stress (CMS)-exposed C57BL/6 mice at the dose of 1 × 106 once a week for 3 weeks. We showed that ADSC administration significantly remedied CMS-induced depressive-like behaviors in sucrose preference test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test accompanied by suppressing microglial activation and the expression of inflammatory factors including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Furthermore, ADSC administration promoted both the expression of BDNF and TrkB, and promoted Nrf2/HO-1 signaling but suppressed TLR4/NF-κB signaling in brain tissue. In order to elucidate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in ADSC-caused neuroprotection, Nrf2-modified ADSCs were cocultured with BV2 microglial cells, then exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Downregulation of Nrf2 in ADSCs decreased the protective effects of ADSCs against LPS-induced microglial activation and M1 polarization. Nrf2 overexpression in ADSCs markedly suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB expression in microglial cells. These results suggest a possible antidepressive mechanism correlated with microglial polarization for anti-inflammatory agents, which may provide a new microglia-targeted strategy for depression therapy.
Keywords: ADSCs; Nrf2; TLR4; microglial; chronic mild stress

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