Article

Residual platelet reactivity is preferred over platelet inhibition rate in monitoring antiplatelet efficacy: insights using thrombelastography

Authors: Hong-yi Wu1, Chi Zhang1, Xin Zhao1, Ju-ying Qian1, Qi-bing Wang1, Jun-bo Ge1
1 Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Correspondence to: Jun-bo Ge: ge.junbo2@zs-hospital.sh.cn,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-019-0278-9
Received: 8 March 2019
Accepted: 23 June 2019
Advance online: 12 September 2019

Abstract

Although thrombelastography (TEG) has been widely implemented in the clinical setting of endovascular intervention, consensus on the optimal parameter for defining high ischemic risk patients is lacking due to the limited data about the relationship between various TEG parameters and clinical outcomes. In this article, we report a post hoc analysis of a prospective, single-center cohort study, including 447 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Arachidonic acid (AA)- or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (MAAA or MAADP) was indicative of the net residual platelet reactivity after the treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel, respectively. AA% or ADP% was indices of the relative platelet inhibition rate on AA or ADP pathway. We found that each parameter alone was predictive of the risk of 6-month ischemic event, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, the association between AA% and clinical outcome disappeared when further adjusted for MAAA. Likewise, inclusion of MAADP changed the significant relation between ADP% and clinical outcome. MAADP > 47.0 mm and MAAA > 15.1 mm were identified as the optimal cutoffs by receiver operating characteristic analysis. High MAAA (HR = 3.963; 95% CI: 1.152–13.632; P = 0.029) and high MAADP (HR = 5.185; 95% CI: 2.228–12.062; P < 0.001) were independent predictors when both were included in multivariable Cox regression hazards model. Interestingly, an even higher risk was found for the coexisting high MAAA and high MAADP (HR = 7.870; 95% CI: 3.462–17.899; P < 0.001). We conclude that when performing TEG to predict clinical efficacy, residual platelet reactivity has superiority over platelet inhibition rate as a measure of thrombotic risk in patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel after ACS.
Keywords: thrombelastography; clopidogrel; aspirin; platelet function; ADP; arachidonic acid

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