Original Article

Adenosine 5′-triphosphate stimulates the increase of TGF-β1 in rat mesangial cells under high-glucose conditions via reactive oxygen species and ERK1/2

Lin-ping Qu, Hong Xue, Ping Yuan, Li Zhou, Tai Yao, Yu Huang, Li-min Lu
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2009.155


Aim: To investigate the role of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells under high-glucose conditions.
Methods: Subconfluent glomerular mesangial cells were serum-starved for 24 h and pretreated with suramin, diphenylenechloride iodonium (DPI) or PD98059 followed by stimulation with a high concentration of glucose (30 mmol/L D-glucose) or ATP (300 μmol/L). Extracellular and total ATP and ROS production were detected using commercially available kits. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was evaluated by Western blot. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR.
Results: Suramin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the generation of ROS induced by high glucose. Extracellular ATP production by mesangial cells increased markedly after a 2-h incubation with high glucose. ROS production was upregulated in mesangial cells after 5 min incubation with 300 μmol/L ATP and was sustained for 120 min. ERK1/2 was significantly activated after 5 min incubation of mesangial cells with ATP, this activation was partially inhibited by DPI. The effects of high glucose on TGF-β1 mRNA were markedly inhibited by suramin, DPI or PD98059.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high concentration of glucose increases the extracellular levels of ATP in mesangial cells within a short time-frame. ATP, in turn, activates ERK1/2, an effect which is at least partially dependent on ROS, which results in the upregulation of TGF-β1.

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