Original Article

Fenoterol, a β2-adrenoceptor agonist, inhibits LPS-induced membrane-bound CD14, TLR4/CD14 complex, and inflammatory cytokines production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

Authors: Wei Wang, Ming Xu, You-yi Zhang, Bei He
DOI: 10.1038/aps.2009.153

Abstract

Aim: To investigate the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway by which fenoterol, a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist, produces anti-inflammatory effects.
Methods: THP-1, a monocytic cell line, was used to explore the mechanism of β2-AR stimulation in LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and changes of toll-like receptors (TLRs). We labeled TLR4 and CD14 using monoclonal anti-TLR4 PE-conjugated and anti-CD14 FITC-conjugated antibodies in THP-1 cells stimulated by β2-AR in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and small, interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of β-arrestin-2, and then analyzed their changes in distribution by flow cytometry, Western blotting and confocal analysis.
Results: LPS-induced membrane-bound CD14, TLR4/CD14 complex levels and elevation of inflammatory cytokines were all significantly reduced by pre-incubation of fenoterol (P<0.05). However, the total level of CD14 and TLR4 was not significantly changed. Interestingly, confocal microscopy revealed redistribution of CD14 and TLR4/CD14 complex under β2-AR stimulation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of β-arrestin-2 eliminated the anti-inflammatory effects and redistribution of CD14 and TLR4/CD14 complex stimulated by β2-AR.
Conclusion: β2-AR agonist exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating TLR signaling in THP-1 cells, potentially resulting from β-arrestin-2 mediated redistribution of CD14 and TLR14/CD14 complex.
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