Article

The vascular endothelial growth factor trap aflibercept induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension via attenuation of eNOS/NO signaling in mice

Authors: Zhi-chao Dong1,2, Ming-ming Wu1, Yun-long Zhang2, Qiu-shi Wang1, Chen Liang1, Xiao Yan2, Lei-xin Zou2, Chen Chen2, Xiao Han2, Bo Zhang2, Zhi-ren Zhang1
1 Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and Cardiology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Institute of Metabolic Disease, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Science, Key Laboratories of Education Ministry for Myocardial Ischemia Mechanism and Treatment, Harbin 150000, China
2 Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China
Correspondence to: Bo Zhang: dalianzhangbo@yahoo.com, Zhi-ren Zhang: zhirenz@yahoo.com,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-020-00569-1
Received: 15 July 2020
Accepted: 29 October 2020
Advance online: 10 December 2020

Abstract

Aflibercept, as a soluble decoy vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, Which has been used as a first-line monotherapy for cancers. Aflibercept often causes cardiovascular toxicities including hypertension, but the mechanisms underlying aflibercept- induced hypertension remain unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of short-term and long-term administration of aflibercept on blood pressure (BP), vascular function, NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and endothelin 1 (ET-1) in mice and cultured endothelial cells. We showed that injection of a single-dose of aflibercept (18.2, 36.4 mg/kg, iv) rapidly and dose- dependently elevated BP in mice. Aflibercept treatment markedly impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation (EDR) and resulted in NADPH oxidases 1 (NOX1)- and NADPH oxidases 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of ROS, decreased the activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) concurrently with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production and elevation of ET-1 levels in mouse aortas; these effects were greatly attenuated by supplementation of L-arginine (L-arg, 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg, bid, ig) before aflibercept injection. Similar results were observed in L-arg-pretreated cultured endothelial cells, showing markedly decreased ROS accumulation and AKT/eNOS/NO signaling impairment induced by aflibercept. In order to assess the effects of long- term aflibercept on hypertension and to evaluate the beneficial effects of L-arg supplementation, we administered these two drugs to WT mice for up to 14 days (at an interval of two days). Long-term administration of aflibercept resulted in a sustained increase in BP and a severely impaired EDR, which are associated with NOX1/NOX4-mediated production of ROS, increase in ET-1, inhibition of AKT/eNOS/NO signaling and a decreased expression of cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-1). The effects caused by long-term administration were greatly attenuated by L-arg supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that aflibercept leads to vascular dysfunction and hypertension by inhibiting CAT-1/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling, increasing ET-1, and activating NOX1/NOX4- mediated oxidative stress, which can be suppressed by supplementation of L-arg. Therefore, L-arg could be a potential therapeutic agent for aflibercept-induced hypertension.
Keywords: aflibercept; hypertension; endothelial dysfunction; superoxide production; endothelin 1; cationic amino acid transporter-1; L-arginine; cultured endothelial cells

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