Article

A novel gemcitabine derivative-loaded liposome with great pancreas-targeting ability

Authors: Pei-wen Li1, Shi Luo1, Lin-yu Xiao1, Bo-le Tian2, Li Wang2, Zhi-rong Zhang1, Ying-chun Zeng3
1 Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2 Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
3 School of Pharmacy, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610500, China
Correspondence to: Ying-chun Zeng: zych19900119@163.com,
DOI: 10.1038/s41401-019-0227-7
Received: 8 December 2018
Accepted: 14 March 2019
Advance online: 23 April 2019

Abstract

Gemcitabine (Gem) is a standard first-line treatment for pancreatic cancer (PC). However, its chemotherapeutic efficacy is hampered by various limitations such as short half-life, metabolic inactivation, and lack of tumor localizing. We previously synthesized a lipophilic Gem derivative (Gem formyl hexadecyl ester, GemC16) that exhibited improved antitumor activity in vitro. In this study, a target ligand N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine was conjugated to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[hydroxyl succinimidyl (polyethylene glycol-2000)] (DSPE-PEG-NHS) to form DSPE-PEG-2N. Then, pancreas-targeting liposomes (2N-LPs) were prepared using the film dispersion-ultrasonic method. GemC16-loaded 2N-LPs displayed near-spherical shapes with an average size distribution of 157.2 nm (polydispersity index (PDI) = 0.201). The encapsulation efficiency of GemC16 was up to 97.3% with a loading capacity of 8.9%. In human PC cell line (BxPC-3) and rat pancreatic acinar cell line (AR42J), cellular uptake of 2N-LPs was significantly enhanced compared with that of unmodified PEG-LPs. 2N-LPs exhibited more potent in vitro cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 and AR42J cell lines than PEG-LPs. After systemic administration in mice, 2N-LPs remarkably increased drug distribution in the pancreas. In an orthotopic tumor mouse model of PC, GemC16-bearing liposomes were more effective in preventing tumor growth than free GemC16. Among these treatments, 2N-LPs showed the best curative effect. Together, 2N-LPs represent a promising nanocarrier to achieve pancreas-targeting drug delivery, and this work would provide new ideas for the chemotherapy of PC.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; gemcitabine derivative; propanediamine; liposomes; targeted drug delivery

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