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Intestinal absorption characteristics of imperialine: in vitro and in situ assessments

	author = {Qing Lin and Li-qin Ling and Ling Guo and Tao Gong and Xun Sun and Zhi-rong Zhang},
	title = {Intestinal absorption characteristics of imperialine:  in vitro  and  in situ  assessments},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {36},
	number = {7},
	year = {2017},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Aim:Imperialine is an effective compound in the traditional Chinese medicine chuanbeimu (Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) that has been used as antitussive/expectorant in a clinical setting. In this study we investigated the absorption characteristics of imperialine in intestinal segments based on an evaluation of its physicochemical properties.
Methods: Caco-2 cells were used to examine uptake and transport of imperialine in vitro, and a rat in situ intestinal perfusion model was used to characterize the absorption of imperialine. The amount of imperialine in the samples was quantified using LC-MS/MS.
Results: The aqueous solubility and oil/water partition coefficient of imperialine were determined. This compound demonstrated a relatively weak alkalinity with a pKa of 8.467±0.028. In Caco-2 cells, the uptake of imperialine was increased with increasing pH in medium, but not affected by temperature. The apparent absorptive and secretive coefficient was (8.39±0.12)×10−6 cm/s and (7.78±0.09)×10−6 cm/s, respectively. Furthermore, neither the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil nor Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 transporter inhibitor ezetimibe affected the absorption and secretion of imperialine in vitro. The in situ intestinal perfusion study showed that the absorption parameters of imperialine varied in 4 intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) with the highest ones in the colon, where a greater number of non-ionized form of imperialine was present.
Conclusion: The intestinal absorptive characteristics of imperialine are closely related to its physicochemical properties. The passive membrane diffusion dominates the intestinal absorption of imperialine.},
	issn = {1745-7254},	url = {}