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Amiloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-accelerated atherosclerosis via inhibition of NHE1-dependent endothelial cell apoptosis

	author = {Gui-mei Cui and Yu-xi Zhao and Na-na Zhang and Zeng-shan Liu and Wan-chun Sun and Qi-sheng Peng},
	title = {Amiloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-accelerated atherosclerosis via inhibition of NHE1-dependent endothelial cell apoptosis},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {34},
	number = {2},
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Aim: To investigate the effects of the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride on endothelial cell apoptosis during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-accelerated atherosclerosis.
Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to LPS (100 ng/mL) in the presence of drugs tested. The activity of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) and calpain, intracellular free Ca2+level ([Ca2+]i), as well as the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the cells were measured. For in vivo study, ApoE-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were fed high-fat diets with 0.5% (w/w) amiloride for 4 weeks and LPS (10 μg/mouse) infusion into caudal veins. Afterwards, atherosclerotic lesions, NHE1 activity and Bcl-2 expression in the aortic tissues were evaluated.
Results: LPS treatment increased NHE1 activity and [Ca2+]i in HUVECs in a time-dependent manner, which was associated with increased activity of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. Amiloride (1−10 μmol/L) significantly suppressed LPS-induced increases in NHE1 activity, [Ca2+]i. and calpain activity. In the presence of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (0.5 mmol/L), LPS-induced increase of calpain activity was also abolished. In LPS-treated HUVECs, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was significantly decreased without altering its mRNA level. In the presence of amiloride (10 μmol/L) or the calpain inhibitor ZLLal (50 μmol/L), the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein by LPS was blocked. LPS treatment did not alter the expression of Bax and Bak proteins in HUVECs. In the presence of amiloride, BAPTA or ZLLal, LPS-induced HUVEC apoptosis was significantly attenuated. In ApoE−/− mice, administration of amiloride significantly suppressed LPS-accelerated atherosclerosis and LPS-induced increase of NHE1 activity, and reversed LPS-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.
Conclusion: LPS stimulates NHE1 activity, increases [Ca2+]i, and activates calpain, which leads to endothelial cell apoptosis related to decreased Bcl-2 expression. Amiloride inhibits NHE1 activity, thus attenuates LPS-accelerated atherosclerosis in mice.},
	issn = {1745-7254},	url = {}