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No physical dependence of skimmianine in mice, rats and monkeys

	author = {Zhi-qing Chang and Shu-ling Wang and Feng Liu and Mei-ying Zhu and Xi-can Tang},
	title = {No physical dependence of skimmianine in mice, rats and monkeys},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {3},
	number = {4},
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {In mice, ip skimmianine 150 or 215 mg/kg exhibited a sedative effect, while ip morphine 15 mg/kg caused a significant Straub’s tail reaction and motor activity. No tolerance to skimmianine was found in mice. In 2-day test the mice received 7 ip injections of skimmianine or morphine, followed by ip phine 50 mg/kg. Marked jumping was precipitated with nalorphine after morphine, but not with nalorphine after skimmianine (210—300 mg/kg).
  Rats were given sc morphine 25 mg/kg bid×120 d. Withdrawal of morphine was followed by a decrease in body wt, which was used as a parameter of abstinence syndrome. Skimmianine ip 80 mg/kg did not alter the loss of body wt of morphine-treated rats.
  Two monkeys developed physical dependence after sc morphine of which the daily dose was increased progressively from 2.5 to 25 mg/kg in 21 d and then maintained for 100 d. Skimmianine 20, 30 or 60 mg/kg did not suppress the withdrawal signs evoked by ip nalorphine 2 mg/kg or withdrawal of morphine. These data suggest that skimmianine is a non-narcotic analgesic.},
	issn = {1745-7254},	url = {}