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Autoimmune diseases: targets, biology, and drug discovery

	author = {Shu-jie Li and Yan-li Wu and Juan-hua Chen and Shi-yi Shen and Jia Duan and H. Eric Xu},
	title = {Autoimmune diseases: targets, biology, and drug discovery},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {45},
	number = {4},
	year = {2024},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) arise from a breakdown in immunological self-tolerance, wherein the adaptive immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells, tissues and organs. AIDs impose excessive treatment costs and currently rely on non-specific and universal immunosuppression, which only offer symptomatic relief without addressing the underlying causes. AIDs are driven by autoantigens, targeting the autoantigens holds great promise in transforming the treatment of these diseases. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying different AIDs and the identification of specific autoantigens are critical. In this review, we categorize AIDs based on their underlying causes and compile information on autoantigens implicated in each disease, providing a roadmap for the development of novel immunotherapy regimens. We will focus on type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is an autoimmune disease characterized by irreversible destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the Langerhans islets of the pancreas. We will discuss insulin as possible autoantigen of T1D and its role in T1D pathogenesis. Finally, we will review current treatments of TID and propose a potentially effective immunotherapy targeting autoantigens.},
	issn = {1745-7254},	url = {}