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Engineered nanomedicines block the PD-1/PD-L1 axis for potentiated cancer immunotherapy

	author = {Jun-hao Li and Lu-jia Huang and Hui-ling Zhou and Yi-ming Shan and Fang-min Chen and Vesa-Pekka Lehto and Wu-jun Xu and Li-qiang Luo and Hai-jun Yu},
	title = {Engineered nanomedicines block the PD-1/PD-L1 axis for potentiated cancer immunotherapy},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {43},
	number = {11},
	year = {2022},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Immunotherapy, in particular immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis, has remarkably revolutionized cancer treatment in the clinic. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy is designed to restore the antitumor response of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) by blocking the interaction between PD-L1 on tumour cells and PD-1 on CTLs. Nevertheless, current anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy suffers from poor therapeutic outcomes in a large variety of solid tumours due to insufficient tumour specificity, severe cytotoxic effects, and the occurrence of immune resistance. In recent years, nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs), endowed with highly efficient tumour targeting and versatility for combination therapy, have paved a new avenue for cancer immunotherapy. In this review article, we summarized the recent advances in NDDSs for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. We then discussed the challenges and further provided perspectives to promote the clinical application of NDDS-based anti-PD-1/PD- L1 therapy.},
	issn = {1745-7254},	url = {}