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L-Carnitine protects against tacrolimus-induced renal injury by attenuating programmed cell death via PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling

	author = {Hai-lan Zheng and Hai-yue Zhang and Chun-lian Zhu and Hui-ying Li and Sheng Cui and Jian Jin and Shang-guo Piao and Yu-ji Jiang and Mei-ying Xuan and Ji-zhe Jin and Ying-shun Jin and Jung-pyo Lee and Byung-ha Chung and Bum-soon Choi and Chul-woo Yang and Can Li},
	title = { L -Carnitine protects against tacrolimus-induced renal injury by attenuating programmed cell death via PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling},
	journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica},
	volume = {42},
	number = {1},
	year = {2021},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Reducing immunosuppressant-related complications using conventional drugs is an efficient therapeutic strategy. L-carnitine (LC) has been shown to protect against various types of renal injury. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effects of LC in a rat model of chronic tacrolimus (TAC) nephropathy. SD rats were injected with TAC (1.5 mg · kg−1 · d−1, sc) for 4 weeks. Renoprotective effects of LC were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, expression of inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines, programmed cell death (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and autophagy), mitochondrial function, and PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling. Chronic TAC nephropathy was characterized by severe renal dysfunction and typical histological features of chronic nephropathy. At a molecular level, TAC markedly increased the expression of inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines in the kidney, induced oxidative stress, and led to mitochondrial dysfunction and programmed cell death through activation of PI3K/AKT and inhibition of PTEN. Coadministration of LC (200 mg · kg−1 · d−1, ip) caused a prominent improvement in renal function and ameliorated histological changes of kidneys in TAC-treated rats. Furthermore, LC exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulated the expression of a series of apoptosis- and autophagy-controlling genes to promote cell survival. Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) were treated with TAC (50 μg/mL) in vitro, which induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and expression of an array of genes controlling programmed cell death (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and autophagy) through interfering with PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling. The harmful responses of HK-2 cells to TAC were significantly attenuated by cotreatment with LC and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (25 μM). In conclusion, LC treatment protects against chronic TAC nephropathy through interfering the PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling.},
	url = {}